Suggested Reading and References

Suggested Reading

Here’s stuff from a post, and then there’s a more definitive list

Grammar

First, the big guns, the ones you must refer to in your papers.

Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (2011) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. New edition. I can’t make out the publishers from the info on Amazon, and I can’t believe the price. I’ve got the 1985 Longman’s edition which cost me an arm and a leg back then; didn’t drink Bolinger for a month! A required part of your bookshelf: get it! It’s very dense and often difficult, but you need it: it’s THE reference. Treat it as you would a dictionary. There is simply no other work which gives such a thorough treatment of English Grammar. Unlike the awful “Grammar Book” (see Crap Books 3), this book doesn’t waste words, in fact there are times when one wishes they’d explained a bit less tersely, but never mind. It’s all there, and learning how to use it well is a good exercise in itself. I was once doing a Cambridge Proficiency Exam Preparation class and a student asked me some question about embedded clauses. I gave my answer and he replied “I think Quirk would disagree with you”. I told him he had no right reading Quirk and that Murphy agreed with me, which shut him up.

Huddleston, R. (1984) Introduction to the Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Great book. More accessible than Quirk et al., but not exactly pool-side reading. Very interesting to compare Huddleston with Quirk et. al. on any given area, which good students do in their papers. Important to refer to in your paper, so you need access to it.

Nelson, G. and Greenbaum, S. (2009) An Introduction to English Grammar. London, Pearson. Very good indeed. Compact, concise and absolutely trustworthy. If you’re writing an MA paper, this is a great book to get your ideas sorted out – then you need to go to Quirk et. al. to see what might be missing, which is not much, IMHO.

I must mention Halliday, M. A. K. (1994) An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold. I gave up after 10 pages when I tried to read this book as a lad, and I’ve never had the guts to go back to it. But without Halliday, your grammar paper might well not be complete: those who mark your paper (unless it’s me) will, in many cases, expect references to Halliday. So if you want to get really serious about functional grammar, then this a must. Then there’s Bloor, T. and Bloor M. (2004) The Functional Analysis of English: A Hallidayan Approach. London: Edward Arnold. I haven’t read it, but I’ve read reviews and colleagues and students say it’s very, ahem, approachable.

Next, the rather lighter, more pedagogical grammar books. You need to refer to these too in papers: compare and contrast what they say with the “authoritative texts” like Quirk et.al..

Parrott, M. (2005) Grammar for English Language Teachers. Cambridge: CUP. An excellent book which divides the grammar up very well and gives clear examples, exercises and a key. Sometimes Parrott dodges issues a bit. I can’t find my copy, but I think he’s not too hot on the use of articles, for example. But, in general, an excellent book. Worth having your own copy.

Batestone, R. (1994) Grammar. Oxford: OUP. One of my favorite books: entertaining, informative, brilliant in its conception. It looks at grammar from different heights: 30,000 feet gives you the general view, go down to 10,000 feet and we see how clauses work, and so on. A short book, very innovative, very well-written, a delight. Highly recommended, but not essential. If you manage to sneak in a reference to it, the marker might well be impressed (either because she’s read it, or she hasn’t!).

Swan, M. (2005) Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Simply the best book to have when students throw awkward questions at you, and to check, as the title suggests, usage. Michael is the acknowledged master of sorting things out. It’s sometimes a bit short on more complex matters, and I don’t think it’s as well-organised as it could be. Alphabetical order doesn’t seem to me to be the best way to do things, and it actually doesn’t make things easier to find than the way Nelson and Greenbaum organise their book. Anyway, it’s a reference book that you really should have on your bookshelf. I’ve just noticed how I refer to having things on your bookshelf, which just shows my age. No doubt many (most?) MA students these days have all these books stored on a hard drive.

Thornbury, S. (1999) How to Teach Grammar. Harlow: Longman. A really excellent book. Scott is a great writer, a scholar, and a clever, modern dude. He takes a basically task-based approach, and the book gives assured, well-considered accounts of all the main areas of grammar teaching. Fresh, intelligent, very good stuff. IMHO, the best book out there for teachers looking for advice on how to teach English grammar.

Pronunciation

I confess that I don’t like this area of AL; I find it difficult and boring. It seems to me a bit like studying anatomy or the periodic tables. I never paid much attention to it as a teacher, but I was forced to study it in the MA I did, and then I had to study more to keep up with my post. grad students. So, I’m no expert, and hence this list might well be missing a few “key” texts.

First, again, the big guns, or rather big gun, because Gimson is still the Main Man.

Gimson, A.C. (1989) An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold, UK. The definitive work. I’ve got the 1962 edition! It seems to me that this is really the only book you need. Seriously: you could do a Ph.D. with this book as the only one needed to make sure you were on track.

Gimson, A.C. and Cruttenden, A. (1994) Gimson’s Pronunciation of English (5th ed.), London: Edward Arnold. This is the one to buy. Everybody refers to this now in their MA papers because it’s a lot easier to navigate and does a first class job of distilling the original Gimson tome. Actually, the original isn’t that long, it’s just very dense, and Cruttendon managed to persuade Gimson to make it more accessible.

As for teaching pronuncaition:

Brown, A (ed.) (1991) Teaching English Pronunciation: A Book of Readings. London: Routledge. A collection of excellent articles. Still a very good reference work.

Rogerson-Revell, P. (2011) English Phonology and Pronunciation Teaching. London: Continuum Press. Very clear, well-organised, great exercises, near perfect. If you only buy one book on teaching pronunciation, let this be it.

David Brett’s website at http://davidbrett.uniss.it/index.htm. Work through the materials and exercises on this website, and you’re set for an “A”!

Underhill, A. (2005) Sound Foundations: Learning and Teaching Pronunciation (2nd Edition). Oxford: Macmillan. Excellent. Very popular and rightly so. Contains recorded materials.

Recommended Reading for SLA

1. Mitchell, R., Myles, F., and Marsden, E. 2011. Second Language Learning Theories. London: Routledge.

Pride of place must go to Rosamond Mitchell, Florence Myles and Emma Marsden for their excellent book on Second Language Learning Theories. This is an update of the Mitchell and Miles 2004 book which has the same title. It’s simply excellent. It provides a clear introduction for MA students and has enough punch in it to be useful for those going further. I’ve rarely read a book that dealt with complex issues with more clarity and critical acumen. When I did my doctorate, the 2004 edition (i.e. without the extra stuff that time and Emma contribute) was always at my side. I love the 2004 edition, and the 2011 edition is better.

What gets you about a really good book is the way it draws you in and then keeps you in its spell. This book starts off well and keeps getting better. You get the lot! You get every half-way decent theory of SLA well-described and critically evaluated in a story (I hate that epithet, but this really is a story) of the development of theories of SLA. The authors have a certain cognitive point of view, but they don’t skimp on their description and evaluation of theories which have a more sociolinguistic bias. This book is accessible, easy to read, and deserves going back to time and time again. It’s in a totally different league to the awful Rod Ellis book -and half as long!

2. Lightbown, P. and Spada, N. 1999. How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

A short, brilliant, concise, fresh, interesting introduction to SLA. I’m not sure if there’s a more recent edition. This is definitely the book to read if you’re new to SLA. It’s very well-written, and, again, it tells the story very well indeed. You can read it cover to cover in a few days, then go back for what you might need.

3. Doughty, C.J. and Long, M.H. 2003. The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell.

This is, without any doubt, the best collection of articles on all aspects of SLA currently available. It’s an absolute must for the serious SLA scholar. Both the authors are, in my opinion, a credit to their field: true scholars who maintain the highest standards in everything they write. The book doesn’t have a weak chapter: it’s a superb collection.

There is a more recent edition of The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition edited by Ritchie and Bhatia, 2009, but, IMHO, it’s not as good, although there are several very good articles in it. Chapter 1, by Susan Gass gives a very good overview; Chapter 4 on Emergentism is impressive; Chapter 14 and Chapter 19 on Implicit Learning are required reading.

4. Skehan, P. 1989. Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold.

Skehan has the ability to bring together various strands of thinking and research like very few; he is, in my opinion, not just one of the best scholars in the field, but probably the very best in making sense of it all. This is a really great book that influenced me a lot. It’s a bit outdated (see Dörnyei for more up to date stuff on motivation, for example), but still a classic. Absolutely required reading! There’s also Skehan, P. 1998. A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Extremely well-written, clear, scholarly, highly recommended.

5. Dörnyei, Z. 2009. The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dörnyei is a tremendous force, he’s a tornado. He’s done more than anybody to pin down the slippery concept of motivation and make it the subject of rigorous research. I personally think that his huge intellect has led him astray recently; I am less than convinced by all his new stuff on identity. Anyway, this is also required reading, but if I were starting an MA, I’d go back to his earlier stuff, and particularly Dörnyei, Z. 2001. Teaching and researching motivation Harlow: Longman. This is, I think, the best book he’s written.

6. McLaughlin, B. 1987. Theories of Second Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold.

This is my favorite book of the lot, but that’s because I tend to agree with just about everything he says! McLaughlin’s view of what criteria we should use when judging rival theories of SLA is, I think, absolutely right.

7. Towell, R. and Hawkins, R. 1994. Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

An excellent review of theories of SLA, with a definite bias towards UG. The book culminates in a very ambitious attempt to put together a general theory of SLA. It’s another of my favorites.

8. White, L. 2003. Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

If you’re really interested in Chomsky, Lydia will explain, better even than Vivian Cook, how UG relates to SLA. But you’ll have to concentrate: this is not easy stuff.

9. Robinson, P. (ed.) 2001. Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Here we get to the transition between learning and teaching. This is a fine collection of papers dealing with both. Peter Robinson is one of our very best scholars; he writes very well, he knows what’s going on like few, and I often think it’s a pity that he spends so much of his time getting other people’s work together, because he’s got a lot to say on his own.

10. Cook, V. 2008. Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. London: Arnold.

Vivian Cook is best known for his marvelous work on Chomsky, but here he offers a scholarly, clear bridge between theory and practice. These days Vivian is banging away about multiculturalism –see the page on this website, and his videocast in the Resources section.

Well, that’s it. But I really must include:

Krashen, S. and Terrell, T. 1983. The natural approach: language acquisition in the classroom. Hayward, CA: Alemany Press.

Note Terrell as co-author; he deserves more recognition. Hugely influential, very easy to read, very beguiling, almost like an opiate. Read Gregg and McLaughlin for the antidote.

 

Recommended Reading on Language Teaching

Richards, J.C. and Rogers, T.S. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
This one will see you through an MA! Very well-written, very well-organised, all the main aspects of ELT are very intelligently and critically discussed. The book provides an excellent historical, linguistic, and social background to the matters it discusses and gives not just a concise and interesting historical review, but also ties them all in to current theories of SLA. The best of the lot, IMHO.

Larsen-Freeman D. and Anderson, M. 2011. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching . Oxford, OUP.
This book gives a good historical review of the main teaching methodologies used in ELT in the last 50 years. Starting with grammar-translation, moving through the new methods introduced in the 80s, including The Silent Way and Total Physical Response, it then looks at CLT, task-based approaches, learning strategies, and “the political dimensions of language teaching”. Good for MA students to refer to in papers, but not, in my view, as complete, as interesting, or as critically acute as Richards and Rogers.

Widdowson, H. G. 2003. Defining issues in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Excellent, reflective exploration of the issues with the great Henry Widdowson. There’s nobody like Widdowson for making you think and he writes so beautifully that I wish he’d written a novel. Widdowson doesn’t tell you stuff the way Larsen-Freeman does, he invites you to consider the underlying issues of ELT and gets to the heart of the matter with unrivalled eloquence and insight. He goes through poor reasoning like a knife through butter; and pursues a humanistic approach to ELT with complete assurance.

Ur, P. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Penny Ur is, in my opinion, one of the best writers in the field. She writes clearly, and with authority. This is an excellent book, highly recommended. Very different from the Richards and Rogers text, Penny looks in turn at Tests, Teaching Pronunciation, Teaching Vocabulary, Teaching Grammar, then teaching the 4 skills. Lots of practical exercises. Thin on theory, but still useful for MA students who decide to concentrate on a particular aspect of ELT.

Scott Thornbury “How To Teach….” Series. How to Teach Grammar; How to teach Vocabulary; and How to Teach Speaking. Delta Publications. Also: Teaching Unplugged.
All of these books are very highly recommended. As I think I’ve said elsewhere, Scott wears his considerable scholarship lightly, and writes in an extremely clear, engaging, indeed, persuasive way. All these books will be of great help to those doing an MA, and Scott’s book on Teaching Unplugged is now required reading. If you write a paper about modern ELT and you don’t include some discussion of Scott’s refreshing, challenging proposals on Dogme, the paper won’t be complete.

Nunan, D. 1999. Second language teaching & learning. Boston, Mass.: Heine & Heine.
Very well-written, clear, informative. Nunan has turned into some kind of Tsar in the ELT world, but there’s no denying his prowess. He’s damn good, and that’s that. The book is, as the title suggests, of broad scope, but it’s incisive, easy to read, and shows Nunan’s excellent grasp of the issues.

Stern, H.H. 1983. Fundamental Concepts in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Old, but still provides excellent background reading. The sections of the book are: Clearing the Ground, Historical Perspectives, Concepts of Language, Concepts of Society, Concepts of Language Learning, and Concepts of Language Teaching. Really first class background reading; essential reference in any “Review of the literature” section of an MA paper on ELT.

Finally, 2 good collections of papers:

Richards, J. C. & W. A. Renandya (eds.) 2002. Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Very good collection. I particularly like Chapter 1 on Approaches to Language Teaching; Chapter 5 on Implementing Cooperative Learning; Chapter 13 by Swan on grammar teaching; Chapter 21 by Nunan on Teaching Listening.

Carter, R. & D. Nunan (eds.) 2001. The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Another very good collection, and VERY wide in scope. Articles by a huge range of excellent scholars, including Bygate, Wallace, McCarthy, Bailey, Scovel, and Breen, make excellent reading. Actually, I think this book could be used as a very good introduction to an MA in TESL.

OK, now the “official” MA list, which duplicates much of the above.

 

***** Excellent **** Very Good *** OK ** Not Good * Bad ??? Beats me

6-GrammerSlammer

Grammar

A. Overview of grammar

***** Parrott, M. (2005) Grammar for English Language Teachers. Cambridge: CUP. An excellent book which divides the grammar up very well and gives clear examples, exercises and a key. Worth having your own copy.

**** Batestone, R. (1994) Grammar. Oxford: OUP. One of my favorite books: entertaining, informative, brilliant in its conception. Highly recommended, but not essential.

B. Reference Works

***** Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. (1985) A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman. A required part of your bookshelf: get it! It’s very dense and often difficult, but you need it. Treat it as you would a dictionary.

***** Huddleston, R. (1984) Introduction to the Grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Great book. More acessible than Quirk et al., but not exactly pool-side reading. Important to refer to in your paper, so you probably need access to it.

***** Greenbaum, S. (1996) The Oxford English Grammar. Oxford: OUP. Greenbaum is, of course, a co-author of the Quirk, et al., work. This is easier, but still quite tedious in parts. Important to refer to in your paper, so, again, you probably need access to it.

*** Chalker, S. and Weiner, E. (eds.) (1993) The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Good to have, but not essential for an MA TESL, although it would be good to have nearby while writing you paper.

I should also mention:

??? Halliday, M. A. K. (1994) An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold. I gave up after 10 pages when I tried to read this book as a lad, and I’ve never had the guts to go back to it. But many of my MA and doctoral students say that he’s the man. If you want to get really serious about grammar, then this a must.

**** Bloor, T. and Bloor M. (2004) The Functional Analysis of English: A Hallidayan Approach. London: Edward Arnold. Much more, ahem, approachable.

C. Pedagogical Grammars

***** Swan, M. (2005) Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Simply the best: Michael is the acknowledged master. A reference book that you really should have on your bookshelf.

*** Collins. (2004) Cobuild English Grammar. London: Collins. This was the result of all the great work the Cobuild did with concordancers: “Real English” was what they claimed to uncover, but it all went rather flat some years ago. Worth a look.

*** Hurford, J. R. (1994) Grammar: A student’s guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This explains “one hundred basic grammatical terms”. Rather strangely organised, but quite good at exlaining the main contrasts and interrelationships between the terms. Again, worth a look.

* Murphy, R. (2005) English Grammar In Use. Cambridge: CUP. Can the 6 million people who bought it be wrong? I think so; in my opinion it’s turgid, boring, oversimplified pap. Jealousy, no doubt.

D. Articles

**** Dirven, R. (1990) Pedagogical Grammar. Language Teaching, 23/1: 1-18. Very interesting, and good to refer to.

**** Meziani, A. (1988) The English tense system: a pedagogic analysis. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 26/4: 281-294. This is a “State of the Art” article, and, again very interesting and very quoteable.

E. Books for Teachers

***** Ur, P. (1992) Grammar Practice Activities: A Practical Guide for Teachers. Cambridge: CUP. Still the best, after all these years. Sorry Scott, but I think Penny is just the best. Get this book!

***** Thornbury, S. (1999) How to Teach Grammar. Harlow: Longman. Excellent. Scott is a great writer, and a clever, modern dude. He takes a basically task-based approach. Fresh, intelligent, very good stuff.

***** Yule, G. (1998) Explaining English Grammar. Oxford: OUP. Now here is a really clever dude. George Yule describes how the peculiarities and idiosyncracies of nine difficult areas of English grammar can be explained to students. The areas include articles, tense and aspect, modals, conditionals, prepositions and particles, indirect objects, infinitives and gerunds, relative clauses, and direct and indirect speech. Very good to refer to.

** Celce-Murcia, M. and Larsen-Freeman, D. (2004) The Grammar Book: An ESL/EFL Teacher’s Course. In my opinion it’s an awful, boring, laborious, tedious overkill. But lots of teachers love it.
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pronunciationTab

Pronunciation

A. Overview of Pronunciation

***** Rogerson-Revell, P. (2011) English Phonology and Pronunciation Teaching. London: Continuum Press. Very clear, well-organised, great exercises, near perfect.

***** David Brett’s website at http://davidbrett.uniss.it/index.htm. Work through the materials and exercises on this website, and you’re set for an “A”!

***** Underhill, A. (2005) Sound Foundations: Learning and Teaching Pronunciation (2nd Edition). Oxford: Macmillan. Excellent. Very popular and rightly so. Contains recorded materials.

***** Roach, P. (2001) English Phonetics and Phonology (3rd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A fine book, also contains recorded materials.

*** Phonetic typewriter. http://www.e-lang.co.uk/mackichan/call/pron/type.html OK – worth a look, but not, I think, as good as Brett.

B. Reference Works

***** Gimson, A.C. and Cruttenden, A. (1994) Gimson’s Pronunciation of English (5th ed.), London: Edward Arnold. This is the one to buy.

***** Wells, J.C. (2000) Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Second edition. Harlow: Pearsons.

***** Gimson, A.C. (1989) An Introduction to the Pronunication of English. London: Edward Arnold, UK. The definitive work.

***** Brown, A (ed). (1991) Teaching English Pronunciation: A Book of Readings. London: Routledge. A collection of excellent articles. Still a very good reference work.

D. Articles

**** Chela-Flores, B. (2001) Pronunciation and language learning: an integrative approach. IRAL 39(2):85-101.

C. Books For Teachers

I think the 3 books mentioned above in “Overview” are quite enough, but here are a few suggestions:

***** Roach, P. (2001) Phonetics (Oxford Introductions to Language Study). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

***** Rogerson, P. and Gilbert, J. (1990) Speaking Clearly. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Teachers Book.

****Kenworthy, J. (1987) Teaching English Pronunciation. London: Longman.

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language_learning

Language Learning

A. Overview of L2 Language Learning

***** Lightbown, P. & Spada, N. (1999) How languages are learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Brief, concise, fresh, interesting: a jewel.

B. More Depth

***** Mitchell,R. and Miles, R. (2004) Second Language Learning Theories. London: Hodder Educational. Excellent, clear Introduction.

***** Doughty, C.J. and Long, M.H. (2003) The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell. The best collection of articles on all aspects of SLA. An absolute must for the serious SLA scholar. Both the authors are, in my opinion, a credit to their field: true scholars who maintain the highest standards in everything they write. NOTE: the new edition of the Handbook on SLA edited by
Ritchie and Bhatia (2009) has some good stuff too, but I think the 2003 edition is better.

***** Skehan, P. (1989) Individual Differences in Second Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold. A really great book that influenced me a lot. It’s a bit outdated (see Dörnyei for more up to date stuff on motivation, for example), but still a classic.

***** Dörnyei, Z. (2009) The psychology of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Dörnyei has done more than anybody to pin down the slippery concept of motivation and make it the subject of rigorous research. The trouble is that in the last 8 years or so he seems to slipping into wierd my-experience-of-you-experiencing-me territory. Get a grip, Zoltan!

***** Dörnyei, Z. (2001) Teaching and researching motivation. Harlow: Longman. This is where he started. This I like!

***** McLaughlin, B. (1987) Theories of Second Language Learning. London: Edward Arnold. My favorite, but that’s because I tend to agree with just about everything he says!

***** Towell, R. & Hawkins, R. (1994) Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. A very ambitous attempt to put together a general theory of SLA. Another of my favorites.

***** Skehan, P. (1998) A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Extremely well-written, clear, scholarly, highly recommended.

***** White, L. (2003) Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. If you’re really interested in Chomsky, White will explain.

***** Robinson, P. (ed.) (2001) Cognition and Second Language Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A fine collection of papers.

**** Cook, V. (2008) Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. London: Arnold. Scholarly, clear, a great bridge between theory and practice.

*** Krashen, S. and Terrell, T. (1983) The natural approach: language acquisition in the classroom. Hayward, CA: Alemany Press. Hugely influential, very easy to read, very beguiling, almost like an opiate. Read Gregg (see below) for the antidote.

* Ellis, R. (2008 ) The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Boring, badly-organised overkill. This is what happens when you know a lot, but haven’t a clue how to present it in an interesting way, or to make sense of it. DON’T BUY IT!!

C. Articles

***** Gregg, K. R. (1984) Krashen’s monitor and Occam’s razor. Applied Linguistics 5, 79-100. Nobody writes like Gregg: he’s like Glenn Gould playing Bach: in a class of his own. He writes beautifully and is the best, most scholarly critic in the field of SLA by a country mile. Here, he performs an elegant hatchet job on Krashen. Elsewhere, in his many articles, Gregg makes the most finely-crafted criticisms of various aspects of theories of SLA you’ll ever read. Google “Kevin Gregg”; download everything he’s written, and enjoy yourself. Scholarship and critical accumen are perfectly combined with elegant prose and the dryest wit since Dorothy Parker.

***** Long, M. (1990) The Least a Second Language Acquisition Needs to Explain. TESOL Quarterly 24/4: 649-666. Long knows his stuff like nobody else, and does not suffer fools. This is a really first class article: scholarly, well-argued, unforgiving. A must read.

***** Schmidt, R. W. (1990) The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning, Applied Linguistics, 11/2: 129-158. Brilliant! Not exactly easy reading, but it has had a huge impact on SLA research. Another “must read”.

***** White, L. (1990) Second Language Acquisition and Universal Grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 12/2: 121-133. If her book is a bit too much for you to cope with, try this article.

***** Pienemann, M. (1989) Is language teachable? Psycholinguistic experiments and hypotheses, Applied Linguistics, 10/1: 52-79. Good introduction to Pienemann’s attempts to plot the stages of SLA development.

***** Selinker, L. (1972) Interlanguage, IRAL, 10: 209-231. Seminal reading.

***** Long, M. H. (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory. In Gass, S. M. and Madden, C. G. (eds.). Input in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 377-93. Excellent, scholarly, critical review.

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Teaching

Language Teaching

A. Books

***** Richards, J.C. and Rogers, T.S. (2001) Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. See comments above.

***** Ur, P. (1996) A Course in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Penny Ur is, in my opinion, one of the best writers in the field. She writes clearly, and with authority. This is an excellent book, highly recommended.

***** Nunan, D. (1999) Second language teaching & learning. Boston, Mass.: Heine & Heine. Very well-written, clear, informative.

***** Richards, J. C. & W. A. Renandya (eds.) (2002) Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Very good collection.

***** Carter, R. & D. Nunan (eds.) (2001) The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Another very good collection.

*****Widdowson, H. G. (2003) Defining issues in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Excellent, reflective exploration of the issues with the great Henry Widdowson.

***** Stern, H.H. (1983) Fundamental Concepts in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Old, but still provides excellent backgroud reading. The sections of the book are: Clearing the Ground, Historical Perspectives, Concepts of Language, Concepts of Society, Concepts of Language Learning, and Concepts of Language Teaching.

*** Brumfit, C. (1984) Communicative Methodology in Language Teaching, the roles of fluency and accuracy. ; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A classic in its time, Brumfit was enormously influential, but I never quite figured out why.

*** Holliday, A. (1994) Appropriate Methodology and Social Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Don’t like it much myself, but often cited.

B. Articles

***** Canale, M. and Swain, M. (1980) Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 1-47. This is widely quoted and rightly considered a “seminal” article.

***** Swan, M. (1985,a.) A Critical Look at the Communicative Approach (1). English Language Teaching Journal 39/1: 2-12.

***** Swan, M. (1985,b.) A Critical Look at the Communicative Approach (2). English Language Teaching Journal 39/2: 76-87. These 2 articles are a must read. Swan is our best pedagogical grammarian, and here he takes an entertaining but very well-considered swipe at at CLT.

**** Ellis, R. (1991) Communicative competence and the Japanese learner, JALT Journal 13(2): 103-127. Ellis does a good job of linking the theoretical underpinnings to a particular local context.

**** Medgyes, P. (1986) Queries from a communicative teacher. ELT Journal, 40/2:107-112. This very famous article is a bit of a “poor me” moaning exercise, but it’s very popular and makes a good source.

**** Nolasco, R. and Arthur, L. (1986) You try doing it with a class of forty! ELT Journal, 40/2:100-106. Another article moaning about how hard it is to implement a communicative approach, this time in Morocco. Again, very well-known, very citeable.

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Sociolinguistics

***** Trudgill, P. (2000) Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society. London, Penguin.
***** Crystal, D. (2003) English as a global language.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
***** Labov, W. (1966) The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
***** Davies, D. 2005. Varieties of modern English: An introduction. London: Pearson Longman.
***** Llamas, C. and Mullany,L. & Stockwell, P. ( eds.) (2007) The Routledge Companion to Sociolinguistics London: Routledge.
**** Burns, A. and Coffin, C. (eds) (2001) Analysing English in a Global Context: A Reader. London and New York: Routledge.
***** Holmes, J. 2008. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Harlow: Pearson.
**** Meyerhoff, M. (2011) Introducing Sociolinguistics. Oxford, Routeledge.
**** Wardhaugh, R. (2002) An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.
*** Spolsky, B. (1998) Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
*** Carter (1999) ‘Standard grammars, spoken grammars: some educational implications’, in Bex, T. and Watts, R. (eds.) Standard English: The Widening Debate. London:Routledge, 149-166.

Articles

**** Tannenbaum, M. (2003) The multifaceted aspects of language maintenance: A new measure for its assessment in immigrant families. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 6(5), 374-393.
*** Ofelia, G., & Bartlett, L. (2007) A speech community model of bilingual education: Educating Latino newcomers in the USA. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 10(1), 1-25.
*** Pauwels, A. (2005) Maintaining the community language in Australia: Challenges and roles for families. The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 8(2-3), 124-131.

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References for stuff related to SLA and theory construction

Please note that this list is badly-done, lots of mistakes, and formatted in way which I don’t use now. It is also out of date, since it only gives references which are given in my 2004 book. Still, as long as you use a consistant format which complies with the Harvard norms (see the excellent Owl Writing site http://owl.english.purdue.edu/) you’ll be OK.

Anderson, J. 1983: The Architecture of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Appignanesi, R. 1995: Postmodernism. Retrieved from http://www.connect.net/con. January 15, 2001.
Appignanesi, R. and Garratt, C. 1995: Introducing Postmodernism. New York: Totem Books.
Asley, D. 1997: History Without a Subject: The Postmodern Condition. Boulder:Westview.
Asimov, I. 1975a: Guide to Science: The Physical Sciences. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Asimov, I.1975b: Guide to Science: The Biological Sciences. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Atkinson, M. 1982: Explanation in the study of child language development. Cambridge: C.U.P.
Bachman, L. 1990: Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bacon, F. 1974 1605: The Advancement of Learning: New Atlantis. Ed. A. Johnston. Oxford: Claredon.
Bailey, N., Madden, C. and Krashen, S. 1974: Is there a ‘natural sequence’ in adult second language learning? Language Learning 21, 2, 235-43.
Barnes, B. 1974: Scientific knowledge and sociological theory. London: Routeledge and Kegan Paul.
Barnes, B. and Bloor, D. 1982: Relativism, Rationalism, and the Sociology of Science. In Hollis, M. and Lukes, S. Rationality and Relativism, 21-47. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Bartley,W.W. 1982: Critical Study: The philosophy of Karl Popper Part III: Rationality, criticism, and Logic. Philosophia 11 no.1: 121 – 221.
Bartley,W.W. 1987: Theories of Rationality. In Radnitzky, G. and Bartley, W.W. 1987: Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge. 205-214. La Salle III, Open Court.
Bates, E. 2000: Language Savants and The Structure of The Mind. International Journal of Bilingualism.
Bates, E. And Elman, J, and Johnson, M, and Karmiloff-Smith, A., and Parisi, D., and Plunkett, K.: Innateness and Emergentism. In Bechtel, W., and Graham, G., (eds): A Companion to Cognitive Science. 590-601. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Bates, E. and Goodman, J. 1997: On the inseparability of grammar and the lexicon: evidence from apasia, acquisition and real-time processing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 12 , 507-584.
Bates, E. and MacWhinney, B. 1987: Second language acquisition from a functionalist perspective: pragmatic, semantic, and perceptual strategies. In Winitz, H. (ed.) Native language and foreign language acquisition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
Bauman, Z. 1992. Limitations of Postmodernity London: Routledge.
Beretta, A. 1991: Theory Construction in Second Language Acquisition. Complementarity and opposition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 13,3: 451-512.
Beretta, A., and Crookes, G. 1993: Cognitive and social determinants of discovery in SLA. Applied Linguistics 14, 3, 250-275.
Bialystok, E. 1979: Explicit and implicit judgements of L2 grammaticality. Language Learning 29, 81-104.
Bialystok, E. 1994: Representation and ways of knowing: three issues in SLA. In Ellis, N. (ed.), Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. London Academic Press, 549-569.
Bialystok, E. 2001: Bilingualism in Development. Cambridge: CUP.
Bialystok, E. and Hakuta, K. 1994: In Other Words. New York: Basic Books.
Bialystok, E. And Sharwood Smith, M. 1985: Interlanguage is not a state of mind. Applied Linguistics, 6, 2, 101-117
Birdsong, D. 1989: Metalinguistic Performance and Interlanguage Competence. New York: Springer.
Bley-Vroman, R. 1989a: What is the logical problem of foreign language learning? In Gass, S. and Schachter, J. (eds.), Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition, 41-48. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bley-Vroman, R. 1989b: The logical problem of foreign language learning. Linguistic Analysis 20:1-2; 3-49.
Block, D. 1996: Not so fast: some thoughts on theory culling, relativism, accepted findings and the heart and soul of SLA. Applied Linguistics 17,1, 63-83.
Bloomfield, L. 1933: Language. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Bloor, D. 1976: Science and Social Imagery. London: Routeledge and Kegan Hall.
Bogen, J. and Woodward, J. 1988. ‘Saving the phenomena.’ Philosophical Review 97: 303-52.
Boghossian, P. 2001: What is social construction? Times Literary Supplement, February 23, 6-8.
Botha, R. 1991: Challenging Chomsky: the generative garden game. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Braidi, S. M. 1995: Reconsidering the role of interaction and input in second language acquisition. Language Learning 45, 141-75.
Brinner, J. 1999: Postmodernism and Constructivism. Retrieved from http://curriculum.calstatela.edu/faculty/psparks/theorists/htm March 12th, 2006.
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Candlin, C. 1983: Plenary address delivered at the Second Language Research Forum, Los Angeles.
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Chalmers, A.F. 1978: What is this thing called science? Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Chalmers, A.F. 1990: Science and its fabrication. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Chapelle, C. 1998: Some notes on Systemic-Functional linguistics. Retrieved from http://www.public.iastate.edu/carolc/LING511/sfl.html April 7th, 2006.
Chaudron, C.1986: The interaction of quantitative and qualitative approaches to research: a view of the second language classroom. TESOL Quarterly 20:70-89.
Chomsky, N. 1957: Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.
Chomsky, N. 1959: Review of Skinner’s Verbal Behaviour. Language, 35 26-58.
Chomsky, N. 1965: Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. 1975: Reflections on language. New York: Pantheon Books.
Chomsky, N. 1980: Rules and representations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Chomsky, N. 1981a: Principles and parameters in syntactic theory. In Homstein, N and Lightfoot, D (eds.) Explanations in linguistics: the logical problem of language acquisition. London: Longman.
Chomsky, N. 1981b: Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht, Foris.
Chomsky, N. 1986: Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin and Use. New York: Prager.
Chomsky, N. 1988: Language and Problems of Knowledge: The Managua Lectures. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. 1995: The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. 1996: Powers and Prospects: Reflection on Human Nature and the Social Order. London: Pluto Press.
Chomsky, N. 2000: New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind. Cambridge University Press.
Chipiere, N. 1997: Real Language Users. http://cogprints.soton.ac.uk.
Clahsen, H. 1987: Connecting theories of language processing and (second) language acquisition. In Pfaff, C. (ed.) First and second language acquisition processes. 103-116. Newbury House, Cambridge, Mass.
Clahsen, H. 1988: Critical phases of grammar development: a study of the acquisition of negation in children and adults. In Jordens, P and Lalleman, J. (eds.) Language development. 123-48. Foris, Dordrecht.
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De Groot, A.M.B. and Kroll, J.F. (eds): 1997: Tutorials in Bilingualism: Psycholiguistic Perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum (esp Paradis).
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Derrida, J. 1976: Of Grammatology. Trans. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
Derrida, J. 1978: Writing and Difference. Trans. Alan Bass. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Derrida, J. 1981: Positions. Trans. A. Bass. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Derrida, J. 1985: The Ear of the Other. Trans C.V. McDonald. New York: Schocken Books.
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Eckman, F.R. 1991: On the determination of the proper level of abstraction for a theory of second language acquisition. Paper presented at the Applied Linguistics at Michigan State University conference on Theory Construction and Methodology in Second Language Research. East Lansing: Michigan State University.
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Ellis, N. 1999: Cognitive Approaches to SLA. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 19, 22-42.
Ellis, N. 2002: Frequency Effects in Language Processing and Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 24,2, 143 – 187
Ellis, R. 1985: Sources of variability in interlanguage. Applied Linguistics 6, 118-31.
Ellis, R. 1986: Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R. 1987: Interlanguage variability in narrative discourse: style-shifting in the use of the past tense. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 9, 1-20.
Ellis, R. 1989: Sources of intra-learner variability in language use and their relationship to second language acquisition. In Gass, S., Madden, C., Preston, D. and Selinker, L. (eds.), Variation in second language acquisition. Volume II: psycholinguistic issues. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 22-15.
Ellis, R. 1990: A Response to Gregg. Applied linguistics 11, 384-91
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Ellis, R. 1997: SLA research and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Elman, J., Bates, E., Johnson, M., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D. and Plunkett, K.1996: Rethinking innateness: a connectionist perspective on development. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
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Firth, A., and Wagner, J.1998: SLA property: No trespassing! Modem Language Journal 82, 1, 91-94.
Flynn, S. 1987: A parameter-setting model of L2 acquisition. Dordecht: Reidel.
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Applied Linguistics 14, 3, 276-294.
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